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Native American Heritage: Tribes & Culture

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Tribes, History & Cultures

American Indian History

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American Indian History Online

U.S. History InContext - Native American

Mesa Verde. These pre-Columbian cliff dwellings are the best preserved and most extensive in the...Until the latter half of the twentieth century, accounts of American history usually began with the arrival of Christopher Columbus (1451–1506) in 1492. Before Columbus went ashore on a small island in the Bahamas (a group of islands south of present-day Florida in the Caribbean Sea), however, native peoples had lived in North America for thousands of years. Nevertheless, for centuries historians chose to concentrate only on the story of Europeans in the "New World" (a European term for North and South America). Native Americans thus remained in the background of the narrative, portrayed either as passive observers or...View More

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Pequot War, King Philip's War, and Early Clashes with Native Americans

The Pequot War, fought in 1637, resulted from conflicts between European and Native American powers.In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, Europe learned about American Indians by indirect means. The few Indians captured and carried across the Atlantic came as slaves or as exhibits in shows. The image of Indians for Europeans came almost entirely from the various accounts of Spanish conquerors, various colonizers, and travelers, whose purposes and visions diverged widely. Believing the American natives to be a subhuman people who deserved conquest, the Spanish concluded it was their duty as righteous men to persuade these heathens to submit to a Christian monarch and to convert them to the true religion. Thus Christopher Columbus,...View More

Native Americans - Credo Reference

The original inhabitants of the Western Hemisphere who arrived during the last Ice Age, estimated at 20,000 to 40,000 years ago. They came in several migrations over a land bridge connecting Alaska with Siberia, and spread gradually throughout the Americas. In what is now the USA, the Native Americans developed ways of life that suited the area in which they lived. Those of the north-west coast lived off the sea; those living on the buffalo-rich Great Plains were hunters and gatherers; those in the warm and abundant south-east were skilled farmers and fishermen. Columbus, mistakenly believing he had reached India, called the indigenous people he encountered ‘Indians’. Friendships with the Native Americans were indispensable to the survival of the early European settlers, who were shown how to grow native crops and where to hunt and fish, saving them from almost certain starvation. The Europeans unwittingly brought diseases to which the native people had no immunity, wiping out thousands and nearly destroying whole tribes. Read More..

Find information about individual tribes in Credo Reference by selecting Find Topic Pages and either enter the name of the tribe or browse the A-Z lists.

Native Americans - Gale Virtual Reference Library

Did You Know?

What is the correct terminology: American Indian, Indian, Native American, or Native?

All of these terms are acceptable. The consensus, however, is that whenever possible, Native people prefer to be called by their specific tribal name. In the United States, Native American has been widely used but is falling out of favor with some groups, and the terms American Indian or indigenous American are preferred by many Native people.

Do All Indians Live in Tipis?

No, most American Indians live in contemporary homes, apartments, condos, and co-ops just like every other citizen in the twenty-first century. Tipis are the traditional home of Plains Indians, but in other regions of the Western Hemisphere Native people lived in many kind of dwelling such as hogans, wigwams, longhouses, or igloos.

How many Indians lived in America before 1492?

This is sometimes called an unanswerable question that historians nevertheless must try to answer. There is sadly little clear information about populations to be found in historic records or archaeological evidence. Even careful estimates differ widely, as they are based largely on assumptions. For America north of Mexico around 1491, these estimates range from perhaps 1.8 million people to more than 18 million—a difference of ten times. More recent population figures are clearer. Many historians believe that the Native population of the United States reached its lowest point—about 250,000—at the end of the 19th century. By the end of the 20th century, the population had rebounded to 4.1 million. National data from the 2010 U.S. census have not yet been published.

How important was Sacagawea to the Lewis and Clark Expedition?

Between 1804 and 1806, Sacagawea, a young Shoshone woman; her husband, a French Canadian fur trader; and their infant son accompanied the U.S. expedition led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark from Fort Mandan on the Missouri River in present-day North Dakota to the mouth of the Columbia River on the Pacific Coast and back. The purpose of the expedition was both to study the area’s geography—its plants, animals, waterways, etc.—and to learn how it could be developed for trade. Over time, Sacagawea’s importance to the expedition has taken on legendary proportions. It is true, however, that she was a valuable member of the expedition, identifying landmarks in her homelands and helping to communicate with other Indians. Her brother also provided the expedition with horses and supplies, and saved them from a dangerous winter in the Rocky Mountains. Sacagawea’s accompanying Lewis and Clark with her baby let other tribes know that this was not a war party. She also shared her knowledge of a great number of local plants, useful sources of medicine and food.

Before Contact with Europeans, did Indians make all their clothes from animal skins?

Long before 1492, many Indian cultures made clothing from plant fibers and from the wool of indigenous mammals. Between 3500 BC and 2300 BC, Native people living in Mesoamerica and on the eastern slopes of the Andes in present-day Peru domesticated many varieties of cotton (a plant Native to every continent other than Antarctica). Communities in what is now the American Southwest began cultivating cotton by 1500 BC. As early as AD 300, the ancestors of modern Pueblo Indians were gathering other plant fibers, such as yucca, willow, and juniper bark, processing them, and weaving them into blankets, sandals, and other articles of clothing. The museum’s collections include yucca-fiber sandals more than 2,500 years old. Today, Indians make traditional and dance clothing, worn on social and ceremonial occasions, of modern fabrics, in addition to materials—including animal skins—used before Contact. For everyday life, Native people wear all kinds of modern clothing, just like everyone else.

Do Indians do rain dances?

Yes, some tribes maintain the tradition of rain dances. Like all human beings, the Native peoples of the Americas recognize the importance of rain. In addition to supporting life, rain is seen by some Native cultures as a blessing and cleansing of the earth. Ceremonies, prayers, ritual art, songs, and dances are among the many ways Native people acknowledge and help to maintain balance in the natural world. These spiritual and culturally important traditions are part of complex religious cycles that take place throughout the year, year after year. It’s hard to know when or why these observances were first caricatured or made fun of. The reality of cultural practices such as rain dances is much more meaningful and humanly rich than the popular images convey.

Do Indians have to pay taxes?

Yes, Indians have to pay federal income taxes, the same as other American families. The confusion may lie in the different status of Indian tribes, which are governments and, as such, not taxable by states or the federal government. In addition, U.S. taxes are not levied on federal payments used to compensate individual Indians for the taking of private land, such as treaty land, or the income from trust land, which is held by the United States. With regard to state taxes, Indians do not pay taxes on income earned on reservations or state sales taxes for goods purchased on reservations, but Indians who live and work off reservations do pay those taxes. And because tribes are governments, they have the right to tax people—tribal members and non-members—living on their reservations.